Breeding – New techniques and applications
Since the domestication of animals and plants in the Neolithic era, the human race has made efforts to breed new varieties. This can be achieved by traditional selective breeding or by new genome techniques like genetic modification, or by modern new breeding techniques, which allow a faster breeding process.
SPECIFIC RESEARCH AND INNOVATION (R&I) BREAKTHROUGH TOPICS
New varieties of animals and plants: Traditional selective breeding is the process by which humans select specific parent animal or plant individuals to improve particular beneficial characteristics (phenotypes). By improving generations of those specific traits, humanity has achieved the existing species of today. This is a never-ending process, which provides new specifications.
New genetic methodologies and applications: The artificial engineering of the genome of organisms, traditionally known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), allows the creation of new species by introducing external genome sequences into known species, replacing, or cutting out sequences, thus leading to positive specific characteristics. Modern new breeding techniques (some known as CRISPR-Cas Technology) are not producing what is considered GMOs, instead it allows the introduction of genetic material already existing in the same plant species, allowing for faster selective breeding than would be possible traditionally.
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